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Dolce and Gabbanna Madonna sunglasses, The Limited top, Oliveo pencil leather skirt, Hermes collier de chien bangle and Eric Michael espadrille sandals (all own)

,In the United States of America, it’s a tradition to wear white clothing in summer. All about the roots of this tradition, and the fashion rule not to wear white before Memorial Day and after Labor Day. Read to know what’s the history of Americans white summer clothes.

Contents
    1. Wearing Black Instead of White in Summer Makes More Sense
      • Physics of White
      • Absorption of Heat
    2. Fashion’s History of Americans White Summer Clothes
      • Urban Pollution at the End of the 19th Century
      • Red Skies Were Normal
      • Summer Retreats for the Rich
      • Dirty Cities and Working Conditions Forbid Wearing White for Non-Rich People
    3. The Path from the Color of an Elite Group to Main Stream
    4. Summer White the Modern Way

 

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Wearing Black Instead of White in Summer Makes More Sense

Physics of White

Many people believe that we Americans wear white in summer because white reflects the Sunlight and hence you would stay cooler than with any other color. It is right that white reflects the Sun’s radiation. However, our body also emits heat. Like the energy from the Sun, the heat from our body is a form of energy. This means the body heat is also reflected by the white fabric of your clothes, i.e. back to your body. Consequently, white clothing doesn’t keep you cool from a physical standpoint.

However, these points are just part of the story. The reflection on the outside of the clothes occurs in the visible range of the solar spectrum, while on the inside, the thermal heat of your body is reflected in the infrared range. The reflection of a surface in the visible range can differ strongly from that in the infrared range. So ideally, you want a fabric that has a high reflectivity for the Sun light and low (or zero) reflectivity in the infrared.

 

Absorption of Heat

On the contrary to white, black absorbs the heat as we meteorologists call it. Absorbing means taking up. The ability of a fabric to take up heat depends on its color (i.e. emissivity) with black having the highest emissivity (100%). Assumed that you aren’t sweating and the fabric is at outside air temperature, the energy balance between your body and the clothes’ fabric is given by the body heat flux density and the fabric’s emissivity and reflectivity (albedo). Consequently, at same temperature, black fabric reflects the least and absorbs the most heat. Consequently, from a physical point of view, wearing black in summer like it is the tradition in the countries around the Mediterranean Sea, seems to make much more sense at outside air temperatures below skin temperature. Of course, as you sweat, the moisture flux, and the fabric’s permeability for water and/or water vapor may strongly modify the energy balance, and, hence the fabric used and thermal comfort are interconnected. In other words, the fabric properties also play a big role for comfort.

 

behavior of fabric heat loss as a function of outside temperature
Radiative heat loss of gray and black clothing at various temperatures. Here the outside of the fabric is shown. There is no loss by radiation when fabric temperature is equal air temperature here assumed as room temperature of 68F (20oC). When the outside temperature is higher than room temperature the fabric gets warmer, i.e. it gains heat and the heat loss in negative. In this case the black clothes feel hotter to the touch than clothes in lighter colors. At temperatures below room temperature, a back fabric losses heat faster than gray or lighter fabrics. This means in the Arctic you are better off wearing white when going out at forty below as it losses it’s heat the slowest, i.e. the fabric at room temperature needs the longest to adjust to air temperature. On the inside of the clothing, the temperature difference between fabric is given by the skin temperature, about 93.2 (34oC), and the fabric. When air and fabric temperature are at equilibrium, the fabric will heat your skin when it is hotter than skin temperature, and your body heats the fabric when the fabric is below 93.2F.

 

So what’s the “cool factor” fashion-wise of  wearing white in summer in America?

 

American in all white casual summer look of pants, T-shirt and sandals with pops of color
Front view all white look

 

Alaskan blogger in warm season casual posh outfit in black and white
American fashion blogger in college T-shirt, Very Fine Dance Sport Shoes sandals, London Jean boyfriend jeans, Paloma Picasso x belt, Ray Ban sunglasses, Coach shearling bag, Hermes collier de Chien bangle (all own), pearl leather necklace c/o Wendy Mignot, cape.hoodie c/o Tricia Tanaka

 

 

Fashion’s History of Americans White Summer Clothes

The old fashion rule not to wear white before Memorial Day and after Labor Day goes back to the end of the 19th century. In East Coast cities, the urban heat island effect combined with the muggy hot air and air pollution from emissions of the early industrialization reduced the quality of life. Without AC and/or electric vans, any rooms heated up to uncomfortable (and often for elderly deadly) conditions.

 

Urban Pollution at the End of the 19th Century

Furthermore, back then, coal served to produce the energy needed for steam engines and other industrial processes. The sulfur dioxide, aerosols including soot released during the combustion process led to “stinky, unhealthy” air with low visibility, and of course,  acidic rain during the frequent thunderstorms. Add the pee and poops of the horses to the mix. The odor must have been just awful! Not to mention that the feces emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs may cause either higher or lower ozone concentrations depending on the concentrations of nitrogen oxides.

 

Red Skies Were Normal

When you could travel back in time (like in science fiction movies, comics or books) to the East Coast cities of the 18th century, you would have seen pink skies and a pink Sun on cloud-free days even around  noon (weather situations under high pressure systems). The Sun beams would travel thru a layer with many aerosols including soot. Thus, just the red light of the Sun’s visible spectrum remains. As a high pressure system strengthened, visibility and air quality worsened and the sky would turn gradually more and more salmon pink reddish (like during sunset). Take a look at paintings of cities from that time. These red skies still lasted into the mid 19th century. See for instance, Thomas Chambers’ painting Threatening Sky, Bay of New York. When you live in a region where wildfires are a natural process of the landscape evolution you may have a good idea of a reddish Sun, low visibility and pollution on days when the smoke rolls in, and how hazardous smoke annoys in summer.

 

Thomas Chambers, Painting, Threatening Sky, Bay of New York, mid 19th century evidence of air pollution
Thomas Chambers, Painting, Threatening Sky, Bay of New York, mid 19th century. From National Gallery of Art, https://images.nga.gov/

 

 

Summer Retreats for the Rich

In the cities, dirt was everywhere, not just from horse dung. Soot and dust fell out of the often stagnant air contributing further to dirty streets in the city. Whoever was rich enough to retreat into their chalet in the mountains (Catskills, Adirondacks, Appalachian, Vermont), at the Atlantic coast (Newport, Long Island, etc.) or on a lake would do so during the warm season. Note that at that time, the two holidays were not yet established.

 

Robert Henri, Young Woman in white clothing painting
Robert Henri, Young Woman in White, 1904. From National Gallery of Art, https://images.nga.gov/

 

 

Away from the cities, the air and environment was clean. The elevation made temperatures more bearable as temperature usually decreases with height in the region below about 10 km (6.21 miles) height  (troposphere). The relatively cooler water of the Atlantic than the land led to see-breezes and welcome cooling. Rooms stayed at lower temperatures in these rural areas than in town. Summers in the country side were pleasant.

 

American Mother and Child in White 1790 painting oil on canvas
American Mother and Child in White 1790. Painting oil on canvas. From National Gallery of Art, https://images.nga.gov/

 

 

Dirty Cities and Working Conditions Forbid Wearing White for Non-Rich People

It is obvious that you can’t wear white when you work 12 or more hours in the factory six days a week and  have to wash your clothes by hand. On the contrary, rich people had their personnel to wash and iron the clothes. Consequently, they could afford to wear white (even when coming or leaving the city).

 

Why Is White an American Summer Color?

Between what today is known as Memorial Day and Labor Day, the Sun’s radiation reaching the surface is strong on cloud-free days. Thus, minor stains (colors) bleach when laundry is drying outside.

 

American woman in leather-on-leather summer outfit with yellow and white
Front view of look with white skirt

 

over 50 years old fashion blogger in top and skirt on a sunny day at an outside eating place
Oliveo pencil leather skirt, Very Fine Dance Sport Shoes strappy sandals, Hermes collier de chien bangle, Bercile enamel bangle, citrine and bone-carved cat statement necklace, Lucky Brand lemon suede top (all own) and wooden sunglasses c/o Winkwood

 

 

Obviously, light-color clothes look dirty more easily than the dark ones. Consequently, you have to wash the former more often than the latter. During summer, laundry dries faster than in winter due to the exponential relationship of the saturation of water-vapor pressure and temperature. At 90% relative humidity, for instance, warm air can take up more water vapor from the wet clothing than cold air at the same relative humidity.

Most likely meteorological conditions and the cleanness of the country side together led to the restriction of white to the warm season. Today, you can wear the color year round. Due to the invention of washers and dryers the laundry process became less labor intensive. The possibilities of at-home dry-cleaning give you the freedom to wear your look when you want it.

 

Alaskan woman in a sheath with leather jacket on a rainy day
Front view of white dress with blue print

 

style blogger in white summer dress blue print green pumps, jacket, bag
Shein printed sheath, Nine West pointy toe pumps, Hermes collier de chien bangle, Gucci bag, gemstone best girlfriends bracelet c/o Chicos, leather bracelet c/o Lizzy James, and leather jacket c/o LeatherSkin

 

 

The Path from the Color of an Elite Group to Mainstream

These above facts gave the color the association with luxury. Like always in history, people dreamed of wearing what the upper class wore. Thus, the middle class (which only encompassed a few people at that time) started wearing white as Sunday’s Best.  As working conditions improved in the 20th century, and cities became cleaner, more and more people picked up wearing the color that seemed to scream

“This person has money.”

 

Summer White the Modern Way

Blame my European raising, my being a deep Winter-Autumn, or the pleasant temperatures of May to July in the Interior, I wear black in the warm season. To be honest, I dislike wearing more than one white item in an outfit. And yes, there is not much of this color in my closet. Sure, the all American Must-have button-down shirt, T-shirt, a pair of boyfriend jeans and of course, leather as well as some prints. Yes, you can wear leather in spring and summer.

 

Photos of me: G. Kramm

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This Post Has 7 Comments

  1. Janey

    really informative post. and I love that Shein dress

  2. stu

    Nicole That blue and white sheath dress look wonderful on you. Also like the white leather pencil skirt but I should imagine your careful where you sit or could lots of cleaning bills with that.

  3. Hilda Smith

    I love your posts and really enjoyed the history behind wearing white in America. I don’t think we get enough sunshine in Ireland so we keep white to shirts and tees. I am not a fan of white….

  4. Nicole Mölders

    Try it now. There was an html issue that I fixed now. Thanks for letting me know.

  5. Nancy

    That’s a good lesson about wearing white! You’re white and blue dress is my favorite!

  6. Mimi

    I would love to join but the copy & paste did not work. Will try next week.

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